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The Bonapartes and Rome

«Rome, the city that Napoleon had longed for as the crown of his imperial dreams, considering it second only to Paris, the city which, although he himself never managed to see it, nevertheless became for many members of the Bonaparte family a place to pass the time of darkness and diaspora, which with the defeat at Waterloo, definitively ended the days of glory and imperial splendour. Despite this, the relationship between the Bonapartes and Rome began at the dawn of the Napoleonic era, when, after Bonaparte, as young general, had been victorious in his Italian Campaign, the Papal State was forced to bend to the Peace of Tolentino, in which it recognised the French Republic and accepted as ambassador Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s elder brother.
This essay by M.E. Tittoni, Director of the Napoleonic Museum, has been published in «Capitolium», 2 (1997), n. 6, p.85-89.